MIT researchers are developing a computer system that uses genetic, demographic, and clinical data to help predict the effects of disease on brain anatomy.
In experiments, they trained a machine-learning system on MRI data from patients with neurodegenerative diseases and found that supplementing that training with other patient information improved the system’s predictions. In the cases of patients with drastic changes in brain anatomy, the additional data cut the predictions’ error rate in half, from 20 percent to 10 percent.
On behalf of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), I am pleased to present our first Professional Judgment Budget, commonly referred to as a Bypass Budget, for Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. This plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 outlines the optimal approach NIH would take in an ideal world unconstrained by fiscal limitations to make real and lasting progress against this devastating group of disorders.
Fibrous protein clumps known as amyloids are most often associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, where they form characteristic plaques in the brain.
Scientists first described amyloids about 150 years ago; they have since been tagged as key players in Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as Alzheimer’s. However, recent findings suggest that this class of proteins may also have critical biological functions in healthy cells.
Add another notch to the evidence that an unhealthy heart can harm the brain. In the September 21 JAMA Neurology, researchers led by M. Arfan Ikram of Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, report that having atrial fibrillation, a common cardiovascular disease in older adults, was associated with an elevated risk of developing dementia over the next 20 years.
We talk a lot these days about what constitutes a good way to die. There’s also much discussion about the art of healthy aging.
But largely absent from the conversation are all the people between the two. People who aren’t dying but who grow more frail. People who have significant health concerns. People who suddenly find themselves in need of care.
"Is it Alzheimer's?" That's the common first question whispered by people who see their parents develop confusion, garbled speech and loss of memory. A fair concern, since Alzheimer's is at the root of 60 percent to 80 percent of dementia cases. A frequent second question: "Will I get it, too?"
Vitamin D is a controversial topic among doctors, mainly because studies about its health effects have been so conflicting. While vitamin D is critical for many body systems, including bones and the brain, recent studies that have tested these assumptions haven’t been reassuring. In March, for example, a large study found that vitamin D supplements did not lower the risk of falls, or their resulting injuries, in the elderly.
If you ask people what is it about aging that concerns them most, you’ll likely hear a lot about financial security and heart disease, but increasingly, worries about brain health and cognitive decline are right up there in importance. And it’s not just seniors.
In the Brain Health Research Study published by the AARP in 2014, 41 percent of adults aged 34 to 49 ranked brain health as the most important component in their overall health.
Prions are the misshapen proteins that replicate by inducing normal proteins to misfold and aggregate in the brain, leading to rare diseases such as mad cow and kuru. In recent years, scientists have discovered that similar processes of protein misfolding are at work in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease. Now, a study in Nature reveals the first evidence for human-to-human transmission of the misfolded proteins that underlie the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease.